Surabaya, Indonesia

City Name Surabaya, Indonesia
Project Name Stakeholder participation in urban air quality management
Status Completed
Time Period Feb 2003-Oct 2004

Description of Project

Surabaya has had a long-standing concern with adverse air quality problems and has implemented a number of public awareness campaigns to increase understanding and participation of residents with regard to urban air quality management.

As presented at the 3rd Thematic Seminar on Urban Air Quality Management held in Bangkok in February 2003, the ambient air quality in Surabaya continues to deteriorate due to increasing emissions from both mobile and stationary sources: number of private vehicles, type of vehicles, type of fuel, lack of information and knowledge of residents, lack of awareness and understanding of health issues, lack of campaigns to raise awareness, and poor coordination among related parties. The preliminary identified causal components include the imbalance between the yearly increase of road capacity an the number of vehicles in operation, failure of vehicles to meet gas emission test requirements, lack of compliance mechanisms such as reward and punishment programme, insufficient urban forest/greenbelt area in comparison to the population, and lack of community development plans addressing ambient air quality management. Surabaya has launched a Blue Sky Programme to improve the situation through the introduction of integrated ambient air quality monitoring and index system, enhancement of environmental awareness in communities and their role in air pollution control, and development of coordination and partnership among stakeholders. To address these issues, the city had an objective to raise awareness and participation of the various stakeholders and disseminate information to vehicle owners.

Towards this end, a national seminar/workshop ("Involvement of Stakeholders in the Improvement of Urban Air Quality in Surabaya") was held in Surabaya in August 2003, organised by UN/ESCAP, the City of Surabaya, the Ministry of the Environment of Indonesia, and IGES. As the seminar/workshop sought to encourage greater participation and partnerships among relevant stakeholders, the composition of stakeholders was critical to the attainment of the workshop objectives. Outputs from the seminar/workshop included enhanced awareness and developed partnerships on air quality improvement in Surabaya, development of a framework of action among stakeholders for improving air quality in Surabaya and development of an outline of pilot project in Surabaya.

Specific activities carried out under the project included: (i) determining the stakeholders’ roles in air pollution prevention; (ii) preparing modules and information kit to enhance stakeholder awareness of air quality management; (iii) strengthening community empowerment for air quality improvement by involving women’s association, NGOs and youth associations; (iii) carrying out public campaigns through mass media. The project was implemented primarily by the City of Surabaya, with assistance from UNESCAP and IGES. A working team consisting of several experts are responsible for the conduct of the project activities.

The following activities were carried out by Surabaya in the implementation of this project:

  • Conduct of Campaign for Clean Air to provide information on the existing air quality, benefits for clean air, economic value and advantages, raise awareness to reduce vehicle emissions, and encourage related parties to become involved in the action plan to reduce air pollution. This campaign targeted motor vehicle manufacturers, distributors, public transport companies and related associations, NGOs, motor vehicle garages, colleges, public transport workers and associations, government agencies (Office of Transportation, Environment, Information and Communications, police department, city council members). A seminar, poster contest and emission tests, as well as information dissemination activities were conducted.
  • Information dissemination was carried out through mass media campaign (radio, television, posters). News releases are also prepared by the local government and delivered to local newspapers and TV and radio stations.
  • Conduct of seminar attended by motor vehicle manufacturers, distributors, lubricating oil and fuel producers, government officials, universities, NGOs, vehicle workshop owners, public transport company associations, and taxi representatives (150 participants in total). Topics discussed included current air pollution problems, effects of air pollution, government policies in clean air, technology development for vehicle emissions, public transport companies involvement in reducing gas emissions, and resident participation.
  • Formulation of Steering Committee (multi-stakeholder committee) as an independent institution, partner and empowering agent for the local government to raise awareness for clean air quality. The Steering Committee was formed following the conduct of the seminar to proving input to the local government regarding actions to control air pollution. A partnership forum, representing the Steering Committee, is an independent forum with open membership. There are working groups established on transportation, automobiles and fuel, environment and health, air quality socialization and regulations, and automobile industry. The partnership forum has a mandate to formulate a grand scenario to achieve clean air, provide technical and non-technical solutions to air quality issues, and act as a campaign agency. Financing of activities will be outsourced to sponsor companies and non-government institutions.
  • As follow-up to these activities, the local government will conduct a policy and implementation programme focusing on planning sustainable urban transport, public transport management, management of transport demand, implementation of emission standards, improving inspection and maintenance, promoting the use of non-motorised vehicles, and use of clean fuel. The city will also continue its greening campaigns (tree planting, etc.) and has placed five fixed stations to monitor pollution levels along heavily congested streets. The city is also promoting and developing air quality management networks with local and international agencies.

Recent Activities

Related Reports and Links

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific


Environment Section
Environment and Sustainable Development Division
United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Avenue
Bangkok 10200 Thailand
Email: escap-esdd-evs@un.org

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies


Kitakyushu Initiative Network Secretariat
3-9-30 Asano, Kokurakita-ku
Kitakyushu City 802-0001 Japan
Email: kitakyushu-initiative@iges.or.jp